Opel Vectra A
since 1988-1995 of release
Repair and car operation
Vektr A. Opel
- 1. Maintenance instruction
Governing bodies and control devices
Control lamps of a combination of devices
Double information display
Heating and ventilation
Instructions on driving
Control lamp of electronic system of the engine
Exhaust system, exhaust gases
HARDWARE system (Traction Control)
Wheels and tires
Parameters of engines
Bases of safe operation of the car
+ Weekly checks and service in a way
Operational materials and liquids
+ 1.1 Maintenance
+ 2. Engine
+ 3. Repair of DOHC engines
+ 4. Repair of the diesel engine
+ 5. Cooling system
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. A fuel and exhaust system of models with system of injection of fuel
+ 8. Exhaust system and system of fall of toxicity of exhaust gases
+ 9. Fuel systems of the diesel engine
+ 10. Engine electrosystems
+ 11. Transmission
+ 12. Mechanical transmission
+ 13. Automatic transmission
+ 14. Power shafts
+ 15. Brake system
+ 16. Suspension bracket
+ 17. Body
+ 18. Electric equipment
+ 19. Check of malfunctions
Observance of mentioned below recommendations substantially will increase your safety on roads and will allow to keep a vehicle in good repair.
At a wheel
The competent equipment of driving of the car also depends on the correct landing of the driver. The negligent, weakened landing (in particular when the driver puts out an elbow of the left hand in a window or leans a body on the left dverka, and the steering wheel holds one hand) does not provide constant readiness of the driver for fast and accurate actions in case of sudden change of a situation on the road. The correct landing — the driver rather densely leans on a back of a seat, a foot at full выжиме on pedals are extended not completely, and both hands which have been slightly bent in elbow joints, are located on a steering wheel. Position of a body should be steady, but not strained — it prevents fast exhaustion.
Drive easy, holding slightly a wheel. Do not compress it as a vice, to a pobeleniye of fingers — the excessive effort and a nervous tension only tire an organism. Take for a rule at movement on direct sites of roads to keep a steering wheel in a range from without ten two to without fifteen three, corresponding to the provision of hour hands. It gives the chance to conduct the car without any efforts and instantly to react to situation change on the road.
Clearness of action of the driver in driving substantially depends on a dress code, especially during winter time. The clothes should be easy, free and convenient. It is not recommended to apply ski or climbing boots, valenoks, high fur boots. Their bulkiness complicates fast management of pedals. Management of pedals and any footwear high-heeled complicates.
Preparation of the car for movement
Before departure from garage or from a parking lot check a technical condition of the car. 8 — 10 minutes spent for it can compensate with interest all losses of time for elimination of malfunctions in a way and will increase your safety. For this purpose:
1. Check and finish to norm pressure of air in tires. The pressure difference in tires on only 0,2 — 0,3 kgfs/cm2 worsens controllability of the car, and when braking can lead to its drift.
Tactics of driving of the car
Tactics of driving of the car is an ability to choose the correct mode of movement where the main indicator is speed. The incorrectly chosen high-speed mode appears the most frequent reason of road accidents. Complexity of a right choice of speed of movement is that demands the simultaneous accounting of different factors or, in other words, a complex assessment of conditions in which there is a movement. Ability of the driver completely to cover all set of mobile and motionless objects, important from the point of view of traffic safety, and thus to exclude from the attention everything the objects not relating to movement which have got to a field of his sight (for example, the billboards remote from the road of a building etc.) are the main condition of the correct tactics of driving of the car. With the same purpose it is not recommended to hang or fix in zones of wind and back glasses and on the dashboard amulets, souvenirs, etc., reducing the review of the driver and in addition distracting not only his attention, but also attention of other participants of movement. Thus it is necessary to remember that with increase in speed of movement the field of vision of the driver decreases. So, the field of vision is equal in rest 120 °, at speed of 30 km/h — 100 °, and at speed of 100 km/h — 40 ° ("tunnel sight").
By no means speed of movement cannot be defined by, whether you hurry or your passengers. It is necessary to acquire firmly it and even in the emergencies to choose speed only according to a situation. In this regard very important quality of the driver is the endurance, allowing to keep tranquillity and not to give in to someone's wishes to go quicker, despite of a concrete situation.
After a long break in driving (the winter period, an illness, business trip, etc.) is required some time for restoration of skills. In this regard execute some training departures on sites of roads with the minimum loading by transport.
Be the good psychologist and critically treat the mistakes at a wheel. Only self-criticism and introspection will help you to avoid repetition of similar mistakes further.
Overcoming of pools
At movement through pools it is necessary to be extremely attentive as they can hide holes and potholes on which it is possible to damage disks of wheels or a suspension bracket detail. In case you move on the unfamiliar road, it is better to pass forward other transport, and how it will overcome a pool, it will be possible to judge a road condition. If such possibility is not present, leave the car and any subject (a stick, a prutok etc.) measure a pool on an expected trajectory of movement. Movement through a pool carry out on minimum possible speed. Dashing overcoming of pools, as a rule, comes to an end with moisture hit on elements of system of ignition and an engine stop.
Movement in rainy weather
Moisture on elements of system of ignition can get and stop the engine at movement on the road to time of a heavy rain. A good and well-tried remedy for prevention of an otsyrevaniye of elements of system of ignition is their preliminary processing of a vodoottalka by howling preparations of the Unism type or "Avtosmazka VTV-1" in aerosol packing or their foreign analogs.
Special attention and care show the first minutes after the rain beginning as the moistened dust on a paving forms the soap film which is sharply reducing coupling of tires with the road.
Regularly during movement carry out an easy pritormazhivaniye of the car to dry brakes as efficiency of crude brakes sharply falls.
During overtaking include стеклоочисти a tel of a windscreen on the maximum mode — it will help to avoid visibility loss at the expense of possible emission of water from under a wheel of overtaken transport. Such precautionary measures are desirable for applying and in case overtake you.
Do not carry out to rainy weather overtaking if the water cloud from under wheels ahead of the going car completely closes the review of a zone of overtaking.
Not to move in a water loop from ahead going cars, increase a distance and reduce speed of movement.
At movement along sidewalks during a rain or after it at journey through pools reduce speed that splashes from under wheels of your car did not get on pedestrians.
Movement in a night-time
With approach of twilight include a passing beam of headlights. If your car is painted in dark tone, a passing beam include a little earlier as against dark asphalt your car is imperceptible and its emergence for drivers of counter transport becomes unexpected.
When driving at night the driver sees only a limited site of the road and for safe movement special attention is required. It is noticed that with age the person needs big illumination for
In case of dazzle by light of headlights of the counter car slow down movement or better stop, without changing a lane, and turn on the alarm light system. Be careful of a message the car blindly — it very dangerously! Do not forget that for restoration of ability see after dazzle time to 10 seconds can to be demanded.
If you follow at night ahead going car and are not going to overtake it, be switched to a passing beam and keep from it at such distance not to disturb his driver light of the headlights.
Movement in the winter
Be very careful on wet or slippery sites of roads — do not allow sharp braking with risk to block wheels that will inevitably lead to drift. For this purpose operate the car smoothly, without sharp turns. Decrease in speed carry out only gradual transition to low gears with a partial pritormazhivaniye working brakes. If despite of everything the car starts to bring, turn a wheel towards drift, do not touch a coupling and brake pedal and keep tranquillity.
In places of crossing of roads often arises наледь at the expense of pro-slipping of wheels at a troganiye from a place. Therefore at approach to such places on a dry site in advance begin decrease in speed.
In the winter happens difficult to get under way from a place on a slippery site. For this purpose include the second or third transfer and, slowly releasing a coupling pedal, smoothly increase engine turns. If you need to execute turn after the car began movement, be switched to the first transfer and turn pass at operation of the engine "in a tightness", without allowing pro-slipping of driving wheels.
In the mountain district
At movement on lifting in due time pass to the lowest transfers, without allowing operation of the engine "in a tightness" and a car derganiye.
On long descents use the engine in a braking mode with partial use of working brakes. Do not assume descent with the switched-off coupling and use of only working brakes that will lead to a warming up of brakes and boiling of brake liquid. Keep in mind that with increase in height the temperature of boiling of brake liquid decreases. Boiling of brake liquid in wheel cylinders means complete refusal of working brakes — the pedal of a brake fails.
If in mountains you wish to stop on parking around observation decks or a recreation area, after long lifting do not stop at once the engine in order to avoid boiling of cooling liquid and fuel in the carburetor, and let's work to the engine of 1 — 2 mines on the minimum turns of idling. It will facilitate the subsequent start of the engine.
As anywhere, in the mountain district keep the right side of the road. The smaller width of the road and a difficult profile of the route demand bigger attention and care. On turns submit sound and light signals. At a stop on lifting or on descent turn out a wheel against the stop that in case of a spontaneous start of motion of the car it rested against a border of the road or other obstacle.
On the slippery road do not begin movement on a steep slope while ahead going car will not reach it top.
Learn to brake smoothly, without allowing blocking of wheels. It is even better to use a smooth pritormazhivaniye working brakes with simultaneous transition to low gears. Such reception provides course stability of the car even on slippery sites of roads and, besides, promotes economy of fuel, increases a resource of tires and brake slips.
Skilled drivers, irrespective of existence of additional stoplights, expecting possibility of application of working brakes, previously a brake pedal before operation of lamps of stoplights several times concern to pay attention of the drivers moving behind it, to be ready to decrease in speed.
The brake way depends on reliability of action of the most brake system, a condition of a protector of tires, load of the car, a profile of the road, type and a paving condition, and also from speed of the car. The brake way increases in proportion to a square of speed i.e. if speed increases twice, the brake way increases four times.
If at the serviceable suspension brackets, the adjusted corners of installation of forward wheels and normal pressure of air in tires when braking the car withdraws aside and it is necessary for you доворачивать a wheel to keep the movement direction, it is necessary to carry out audit of working brakes.
Sitting down for the first time at a wheel of other car, check on a free site of the road work of brakes on speeds 40, 60 and 80 km/h that is necessary for an assessment of a condition of brakes and acquisition of the first skill.
In order to avoid "prikipaniye" of brake shoes to drums do not put the car on long parking with the switched-on parking brake.
That brake shoes did not freeze to drums after movement on wet roads at sharp fluctuations of temperatures, do not leave the car on the open area with the tightened parking brake, without having dried a brake smooth braking at movement to parking.